passing over the evaporator fins on its way to
the vehicle interior. The refrigerant becomes a
gas again and the cycle is repeated.
Various subsidiary controls and sensors
protect the system against excessive
temperature and pressures. Additionally,
engine idle speed is increased when the
system is in use to compensate for the
additional load imposed by the compressor.
Air conditioning refrigerant
Although the refrigerant is not itself toxic, in
the presence of a naked flame (or a lighted
cigarette) it forms a highly toxic gas. Liquid
refrigerant spilled on the skin will cause
frostbite. If refrigerant enters the eyes, rinse
them with a dilute solution of boric acid and
seek medical advice immediately.
In view of the above points, and of the need
for specialised equipment for evacuating and
recharging the system, any work which
requires the disconnection of a refrigerant line
must be left to a specialist.
Do not allow refrigerant lines to be exposed
to temperatures above 230°F (110°C) - eg
during welding or paint drying operations and
do not operate the air conditioning system if it
is known to be short of refrigerant, or further
damage may result.
Antifreeze mixture is poisonous. Keep it out
of reach of children and pets. Wash splashes
off skin and clothing with plenty of water.
Wash splashes off vehicle paintwork to avoid
Antifreeze/water mixture must be renewed
at the specified intervals to preserve its anti-
corrosive properties. In climates where
antifreeze protection is unnecessary, a
corrosion inhibitor may be used instead -
consult a Ford dealer. Never run the engine
for long periods with plain water as coolant.
Only use the specified antifreeze as inferior
brands may not contain the necessary
corrosion inhibitors, or may break down at
high temperatures. Antifreeze containing
methanol is particularly to be avoided, as the
The specified mixture is 45 to 50%
antifreeze and 50 to 55% clean soft water (by
volume). Mix the required quantity in a clean
Refer to Chapter 1, Section 46.
Refer to Chapter 1, Section 46.
Refer to Chapter 1, Section 46.
1Disconnect the battery negative lead.
2Drain the cooling system.
3If not already done, disconnect the bottom
hose from the radiator.
4Disconnect the top hose and the expansion
tank hose from the radiator.
5On automatic transmission models, place a
suitable container beneath the fluid cooler
pipe connections at the radiator. Unscrew the
union and plug the upper pipe, then repeat
the procedure on the lower pipe.
6Apply the handbrake, jack up the front of
the vehicle and support on axle stands (see
“Jacking and Vehicle Support”).
7To improve access, remove the cooling fan
shroud as follows, according to model.
8On SOHC models, remove the four
retaining clips and unscrew the two retaining
screws, then withdraw the upper section of
the fan shroud. Unclip and remove the lower
section of the shroud.
9On CVH and DOHC models, unclip the
wiring connector from the fan motor(s) then
unscrew the retaining nuts and washers, and
withdraw the fan shroud(s) and cooling fan
assembly(s) (see illustration).
10On early models, unscrew and remove the
upper radiator mounting nuts and washers
(see illustration). Unscrew and remove the
lower mounting bolts and washers and
withdraw the radiator from under the vehicle
(see illustration).11On all later models, the radiator is secured
to the engine compartment front panel using
clips and locking pegs. To release the top of
the radiator, work through the cut-outs in the
engine compartment front panel and remove
the two radiator upper locking pegs (see
illustration). Working under the front of the
vehicle, remove the two radiator lower
mounting bolts. Support the radiator from
underneath. Squeeze the upper radiator
locking pegs to release them from the engine
compartment front panel and lower the
radiator assembly from the vehicle.
12Refitting is a reversal of removal, bearing
in mind the following points.
13Refill the cooling system.
14On automatic transmission models, check
and if necessary top-up the transmission fluid
1If the radiator has been removed because
of suspected blockage, reverse-flush it.
2Clean dirt and debris from the radiator fins
using an air jet or water and a soft brush. Be
careful not to damage the fins or cut your
5Radiator - removal and refitting
4Cooling system - filling
3Cooling system - flushing
2Cooling system - draining
Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems 3•3
5.10a Radiator and cooling fan shroud
A Radiator mounting nut
B Shroud securing screw
C Shroud securing clips
D Radiator top hose clip
5.11Removing a radiator upper locking peg5.10b Lower radiator mounting bolt
5.9 Unscrew the fan shroud/radiator
6Disconnect the battery negative lead.
7To provide additional clearance when
removing the cooling fan shroud assembly
(which is removed from below the vehicle),
apply the handbrake, then jack up the front of
the vehicle and support it securely on axle
stands (see “Jacking and Vehicle Support”).
8Disconnect the wiring plug(s) from the
motor(s), and where applicable, unclip the
wiring from the fan shroud.
9Unclip the expansion tank hose from the
10Unscrew the two nuts securing the fan
shroud to the top of the radiator, then tilt the
top of the shroud away from the radiator, and
lift the shroud to release the lower securing
clips. Withdraw the assembly from below the
11To remove the fan blades, prise the
securing clip from the end of the motor shaft.12The motor can be separated from the fan
shroud by unscrewing the three securing nuts
13Where two cooling fans are fitted, both are
secured to the shroud in the same manner.
14Refitting is a reversal of removal, but
when fitting the fan blades, ensure that the
drive dog on the motor shaft engages with the
slot in the rear of the fan blades.
On CVH models, the cooling fan switch is
located on the right-hand side of the
thermostat housing (see illustration). On
DOHC models, the switch is located in the
end of the thermostat housing.
Removal and refitting of the switch is as
described for the temperature gauge sender.
1With the engine cold, slowly unscrew the
expansion tank cap to release any remaining
pressure from the cooling system. Remove
2Place a suitable container beneath the
3Disconnect and plug the upper hose.
4Where applicable, disconnect the coolant
level sensor wiring plug. 5Unscrew the expansion tank securing
screws, and tilt the tank so that the coolant
runs to the sealed end.
6Disconnect and plug the lower hose.
7Drain the expansion tank into the container
and remove the tank.
8Where applicable, the coolant level sensor
can be removed from the tank by unscrewing
the collar from the sensor, then withdrawing
the spacer, sensor and seal (see illustration).
Renew the seal if necessary. Note that the
sensor can only be fitted in one position (see
9Refitting is a reversal of removal.
10On completion, top-up the coolant level to
the maximum mark, then refit the expansion
tank cap and run the engine at a fast idling
speed for several minutes. Check the
expansion tank for leaks, then stop the engine
and if necessary top-up the coolant level.
1On SOHC models, the temperature gauge
sender is located on the front left-hand side of
the cylinder head, just in front of the inlet
manifold. On CVH models, the sender is
located on the front face of the inlet manifold,
next to the thermostat housing. On DOHC
models, the sender is located at the front of
the inlet manifold (see illustration).
16Temperature gauge sender
- removal and refitting
15Expansion tank and coolant
level sensor - removal and
14Cooling fan switch -removal
3•8Cooling, heating and air conditioning systems
13.2 Fan blade securing clip and direction
of rotation arrow
15.8a Removing the coolant level sensor
from the expansion tank
16.3a Disconnect the temperature gauge
sender wiring - SOHC16.1 Temperature gauge sender location
(arrowed)16.3b Disconnect the temperature gauge
sender wiring - CVH
15.8b Fitting the coolant level sensor
14.1 Disconnecting the wiring plug from
the cooling fan switch